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What Is a Proximity Reader?

On June 19, 2017, in Electronic Goods, by Lambert

If you are in the process of updating your home’s or business’s security system or if you never had such a system and you are planning to invest in one, there are probably a lot of industry terms you don’t understand very well. That is why, in this article, we are going to talk about two important parts of any security access system, the proximity card and the proximity reader.

 

Proximity cards, also referred to as prox cards, are different than the magnetic stripe cards, because they do not need to be inserted into the reader device to grant access in the secured area. We say “grant access” because the majority of proximity cards and proximity readers are used as a part of home or business security system. Other uses include library cards, contactless payment systems or in public transit fare. Proximity cards are practical due to the fact that they can easily be read through a wallet or a purse.

 

There are two main types of proximity cards: passive and active. Passive prox cards have a limited range and are widely used to grant access in office buildings. Active cards, also called vicinity cards, have a greater range (150 meters), due to the fact that they use and internal lithium battery. They can be used to easily access courtyards from inside of a vehicle or from automated toll collection.

 

Now, in case you were wondering “What is a Proximity Reader?” they are devices that can store details about the identity of the cards holders, granting them access to otherwise restricted areas. This system is similar to the “chip and PIN” bank cards, with the difference that the proximity reader grants access using radio frequencies and does not need actual insertion of the card. Also, they offer more security to their holders, due to the fact that they are harder to copy. Another great advantage of these readers is the fact that they are quite sturdy and do not need any maintenance.

 

Another term you might encounter when browsing for this type of access system in “Contactless Smart Card”, which is basically the same thing, with the difference that they use advanced methods of data encryption and authentication, meaning that they offer a higher level of security. Besides this general information, there are various technologies that are used in the manufacture of proximity cards and readers.

 

If you are planning to invest in such a system, you must know that the prices are very different from one product to another. For example, the price for a single card ranges from $2 to $200, while for the proximity reader you can pay from $100 to $400.

 

Before making any purchase, we advise you to ask the advice of an experienced security technician, just to make sure that you choose the right system for your needs. The good news is that the majority of shops, even online ones, have an assistant which can help you make the right decision.

 

Pongee Industries Co., Ltd. is the manufacturer of proximity reader. If you are looking for the best proximity reader, don’t miss Pongee’s website, we can offer clients kinds of high quality products. Contact with Pongee to obtain further product information!

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/8665232

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Motors play an important part in lifting and running a device. They are limited to weight but high efficiency and power capacity motors can easily cover heavy weight situations. Brushless Motors are best used for quadcopters, multicopters and drones.

 

Choosing motors for copter projects is not an easy task, so for every selection technical specifications such as thrust, power and RPM is to be checked.

 

Generally, planning to prepare your own project for the first time, weight is to be considered then the thrust to lift the quadcopter. The thrust should be kept higher for proper lifting, flying and landing. According to general statistics, thrust should be kept twice the weight of the quadcopter.

 

Trust is kept perfect, too low might create difficulties to take off and too high become hard to control.

 

A light weight copter is more efficient and durable.

 

Additionally, the battery is also considered an important element for long life of quadcopter. Lithium polymer batteries are best suited for long run as they do not swell nor they heat up faster. Batteries should be charged when it reaches a minimum of 20 percent. Zero percent might lower the durability of the battery. Brushless DC motors accomplished high speed of 10000 RPM or above.

 

Brushless DC motor architecture sounds very simple and compact. A fixed armature is present in the brushless motor around which permanent magnets rotate. Brushless DC motors are best suited as they produce high torque to weight ratio, increased reliability, more torque per watt, reduced noise, no brush required, as long life, totally eliminates ionizing sparks from the commutator plus reduce electromagnetic interference. Brushless motor commutation is easily implemented using a microcontroller, analogue hardware or digital firmware by using an FPGA. Brushless commutation has greater flexibility, speed limiting, holding torque when stationary, micro stepped operation for slow or fine motion control.

 

Brushless motors cover a wide range of applications in the field of electronic devices which comprise of computer hard drives, DVD/CD players, refrigeration. They are also favorable to electric vehicles such as bicycle and hybrid vehicles. Users or learners can use brushless DC motor in various quadcopter, multicopter or drones adding additional accessories for a specific function. Copters help in remodeling, transferring load, surveillance, Videography and many more.

 

After improving its performance, again, both the coils are energized and further improved in a manner such that it pushes the rotor and energize the coils. Therefore, it results in increasing torque and power from the motor. This great achievement is seen in this motor and takes time for other type of motors to grab.

 

Rebeck Enterprise is the manufacturer of brushless DC motors. Our brushless DC motor, high efficiency can be applied to mechanical precision positioning. And the motor features long life time, high efficiency, low noise, low consumption, variable speed, and many more. Welcome to visit our website to learn further details about brushless DC motor, and feel free to send inquiry to Rebeck!

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/9220583

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What exactly is geo-mapping and aerial survey?

 

We believe that the future of aerial surveying is not fixed and static, but flexible and dynamic. It´s a great way to receive data for orthophotos, 3D models in high resolution with great accuracy. We also offer you an in-house flight planning software, suited for simple dealing with data and parameters.

 

Aerial survey is a great solution for various kinds of applications. It can be used to deal with challenging sites such as quarries, sand pits, landfills, coal stockpiles. When using the drones in order to create aerial maps, you can undoubtedly go places that conventional equipment cannot reach. Moreover, you acquire more safety for your surveying staff and save time and costs.

 

Advantages of aerial mapping

 

Connection of a drone and a very precise GPS receiver is one of the crucial areas of the future aerial mapping development. Another important feature is special software, suited for data processing and virtual map making. This software allows importing the data gathered by the precise GPS receiver. Each image is connected to a required data package, which is important for further georeferencing and coordinate system making.

 

A common UAV survey can typically produce up to 500 high quality images per square kilometer, at 1cm to 5cm resolution. In addition, the detail obtained from the individual imagery or orthorectified mosaics usually surpasses anything else what is presently accessible even from satellite or classical aerial photography.

 

Aerial mapping step by step

 

The first step of UAV mapping is always preparation. There you should define your requirements and flight parameters, such as altitude, airspeed, overlap and distances. In a next step is done the actual flight plan, including precise directions, amount, routes and such. As a next step is usually recommended to create control points for each hectar in order to achieve high accuracy geo-referencing. After that follow flight operations. Common recording while surface flight is performed at a 90° degree angle for capturing the images orientated straight down to the surface.

 

GPS coordinates are connected directly to the photo’s data, which allow processing the geo-referenced data in many GIS systems. After all that you can finally create 3D models and orthophotos. Conventional aerial photos are limited regarding their use in GIS because they are not true to scale. In order to create a scale correct photograph that can be accurately measured, an orthographic projection is definitely necessary, in which the view is straight down over every point in the photo. An orthographic photo can be really used to measure precise distances, for it is an accurate representation of the Earth´s surface.

 

Carbon-Based Technology, Inc. devoted in complete system design, integration, manufacturing, and global marketing of Unmanned Aircraft System. We not only can offer high reliability Unmanned System as a platform for “Intelligence Gathering”, but also can offer total solutions for various aspects. If you need further details about aerial mapping and UAVs, welcome to browse our website or contact with Carbon-Based directly!

 

 

Article Source: http://vespadrones.com/uav-mapping/

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Switching mode power supply (SMPS) is used in a range of applications as an efficient and effective source of power. This is in major part to their efficiency. For anybody still working on a desktop, look for the fan output in the central processing units (CPU). That’s where the SMPS is. SMPS offers advantages in terms of size, weight, cost, efficiency and overall performance. These have become an accepted part of electronic gadgets. Basically it is a device in which energy conversion and regulation is provided by power semiconductors that are continuously switching “on” and “off” with high frequency.

 

The different kinds

  • C. to D.C. Converter
  • Forward Converter:
  • Flyback Converter:
  • Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter
  • DC-DC converter

 

The primary power received from AC main is rectified and filtered as high voltage DC. It is then switched at a huge rate of speed and fed to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The step-down transformer is only a fraction of the size of a comparable 50 Hz unit thus relieving the size and weight problems. We have the filtered and rectified output at the secondary side of the transformer. It is now sent to the output of the power supply. A sample of this output is sent back to the switch to control the output voltage.

 

Forward converter

 

In a forward converter the choke carries the current when the transistor is conducting as well as when it’s not. The diode carries the current during the OFF period of the transistor. Therefore, energy flows into the load during both the periods. The choke stores energy during the ON period and also passes some energy into the output load.

 

Flyback converter

 

In a flyback converter, the magnetic field of the inductor stores energy during the ON period of the switch. The energy is emptied into the output voltage circuit when the switch is in the open state. The duty cycle determines the output voltage.

 

Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

 

This is the most simple and basic converter based on the flyback principle. During the conduction time of the switching transistor, the current through the transformer primary starts ramping up linearly with the slope equal to Vin/Lp. The voltage induced in the secondary winding and the feedback winding make the fast recovery rectifier reverse biased and hold the conducting transistor ON. When the primary current reaches a peak value Ip, where the core begins to saturate, the current tends to rise very sharply. This sharp rise in current cannot be supported by the fixed base drive provided by the feedback winding. As a result, the switching begins to come out of saturation.

 

Basic working concept of a SMPS

 

A switching regulator does the regulation in the SMPS. A series switching element turns the current supply to a smoothing capacitor on and off. The voltage on the capacitor controls the time the series element is turned. The continuous switching of the capacitor maintains the voltage at the required level.

 

Design basics

 

AC power first passes through fuses and a line filter. Then it is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier. The rectified voltage is next applied to the power factor correction (PFC) pre-regulator followed by the downstream DC-DC converter(s). Most computers and small appliances use International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) style input connector. As for output connectors and pinouts, except for some industries, such as PC and compact PCI, in general they are not standardized and are left up to the manufacturer.

 

Why SMPS

 

Like every electronic gadget, switching mode power supplies also involve some active and some passive components. And like every of those gadgets, it has its own advantages and disadvantages.

 

Let’s start with why you should go for a SMPS

 

  • The switching action means the series regulator element is either on or off. Very high efficiency levels are achieved as very little energy us dissipated as heat.
  • As a result of the high efficiency and low levels of heat dissipation, the switch mode power supplies can be compact.
  • Switch mode power supply technology also provide high efficiency voltage conversions in voltage step up or “Boost” applications and step down or “Buck” applications.

 

Then there’s the bad set

 

  • The transient spikes due to the switching action can migrate into other areas of the circuits if not properly filtered. These can cause electromagnetic or RF interference affecting other nearby items of electronic equipment, particularly if they receive radio signals.
  • To ensure that a SMPS performs as per the required specification can be a bit difficult. The ripple and interference levels are particularly tricky.
  • The costs of a switch mode power supply is calculates before designing or using one. Additional filtering further adds to the cost.

 

What would the future hold?

 

In the future, we could have more efficient SMPS aimed at a better converter doing the most effective conversion process. The focus areas for designers in making SMPS efficient would be:

 

  • Higher output power
  • Achieving higher current output and low voltage
  • Increasing power density
  • Using switching device like Schottky diode

 

Hon-Kwang Electric specialized in manufacturing switch mode power supply and related products. We provide series of switching power supplies to meet different demands of you. If you are interested in learning more details about switching mode power supply, please feel free to contact with Hon-Kwang.

 

Article Source: http://electronicsforu.com/resources/learn-electronics/smps-basics-switched-mode-power-supply

When it comes to overcurrent protection of electronic equipment, fuses have long been the standard solution. They come in a wide variety of ratings and mounting styles to fit virtually any application. When they open, they completely stop the flow of electricity, which may be the desired reaction; the equipment or circuit is rendered inoperable, which draws the user’s attention to what may have caused the overload condition so that corrective action can be taken.

 

Nevertheless, there are circumstances and circuits where auto-recovery from a temporary overload without user intervention is desirable. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors – also called polymeric positive temperature coefficient devices (PPTCs) or resettable fuses – are an excellent way of achieving this type of protection.

 

Ceramic PTCs are also widely available through possess different operating characteristics including greater internal resistance, higher ambient heat tolerance, and higher voltage ratings. As they are typically used within high ambient heat areas including heating equipment applications not common to many electronics requirements, they were not factored within the scope of this article.

 

How a PTC works

 

A PTC resettable fuse consists of a piece of polymer material loaded with conductive particles (usually carbon black). At room temperature the polymer is in a semi-crystalline state and the conductive particles touch each other, forming multiple conductive paths and providing low resistance (generally about twice that of a fuse of the same rating).

 

When current passes through the PTC it dissipates power (P = I2R) and its temperature increases. As long as the current is less than its rated Hold Current, IHOLD, the PTC resettable fuse will remain in a low-resistance state and the circuit will operate normally. When the current exceeds the rated Trip Current, ITRIP, the PTC heats up suddenly. The polymer changes to an amorphous state and expands, breaking the connections between the conductive particles. This causes the resistance to increase rapidly by several orders of magnitude and reduces the current to a low (leakage) value just sufficient to keep the PTC in the high-resistance state – generally from around tens of milliamps to several hundred milliamps at rated voltage (Vmax). When the power is shut off the device cools down and returns to its low-resistance state.

 

Like a fuse, a PTC is rated for the maximum short circuit current (IMAX) it can interrupt at rated voltage. IMAX for a typical PTC is 40A, and may reach 100A. Interrupting ratings for fuses of the sizes that may be used in the sorts of applications we are considering here can range from 35 to 10000 amperes at rated voltage.

 

The voltage rating for a PTC is limited. PTC resettable fuses for general use are not rated above 60V operating voltage (there are PTCs for telecom application with 250V and 600V interrupting voltage, but their operating voltage is still 60V); surface-mount and small cartridge fuses are available with ratings from 32V to 250V or more.

 

The operating current rating for PTCs ranges up to about 9A, while the maximum level for fuses of the types considered here can exceed 20A, with some available to 60A.

 

The useful upper temperature limit for a PTC is generally 85°C, while the maximum operating temperature for thin-film surface mount fuses is 90°C, and for small cartridge fuses is 125°C. Both PTCs and fuses require derating for temperatures above 20°C, although PTCs are more sensitive to temperature (Fig.2). When designing in any overcurrent protective device, be sure to consider factors that may affect its operating temperature, including the effect on heat removal of leads/traces, any air flow, and proximity to heat sources. The speed of response for a PTC is similar to that of a time delay fuse.

 

Common PTC applications

 

Much of the design work for personal computers and peripheral devices is strongly influenced by the Microsoft and Intel System Design Guide which states that “Using a fuse that must be replaced each time an overcurrent condition occurs is unacceptable.” And the SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) Standard for this large market includes a statement that “… a positive temperature coefficient device must be used instead of a fuse, to limit the maximum amount of current sourced.”

 

PTC resettable fuses are used to provide secondary overcurrent protection for telephone central office equipment and customer premises equipment, alarm systems, set top boxes, voice over IP (VOIP) equipment and subscriber line interface circuits (SLICs). They provide primary protection for battery packs, battery chargers, automotive door locks, USB ports, loudspeakers and power over Ethernet.

 

SCSI Plug and Play applications that benefit from PTCs include both the mother-board and the many peripherals that can be frequently connected to and disconnected from the computer ports. The mouse, keyboard, printer, modem and monitor ports represent opportunities for misconnections and connections of faulty units or damaged cable. The ability to reset after correction of the fault is particularly attractive.

 

A PTC resettable fuse can protect disk drives from the potentially damaging overcurrent resulting from excessive current from a power supply malfunction.

 

PTC resettable fuses can protect power supplies against overloading; individual PTCs can be placed in the output circuits to protect each load where there are multiple loads or circuits.

 

Motor overcurrent can produce excessive heat that may damage the winding insulation and for small motors may even cause a failure of the very small diameter wire windings. The PTC will generally not trip under normal motor start up currents, but will act to prevent a sustained overload from causing damage.

 

Transformers can be damaged by overcurrent caused by circuit faults, and the current limiting function of a PTC can provide protection. The PTC is located on the load side of the transformer.

 

Fuse or PTC?

 

The following procedure will help in selecting and applying the correct component. Help is also available from device suppliers. For unbiased advice it is wise to look for a company that offers both fuse and PTC technology.

 

  1. Define the circuit operating parameters. Consider the following: normal operating; current in ampere; normal operating voltage in volts; maximum interrupt current; ambient temperature/rerating; typical overload current; required opening time at specific overload; transient pulses expected; resettable or one-time; agency approvals; mounting type/form factor; typical resistance (in circuit).

 

  1. Select a prospective circuit protection component.

 

  1. Determine the opening time at fault. Consult the Time-Current (T-C) Curve to determine if the selected part will operate within the constraints of the application.

 

  1. Verify ambient operating parameters. Ensure that the application voltage is less than or equal to the device’s rated voltage and that the operating temperature limits are within those specified by the device

 

  1. Verify the device’s dimensions. Compare the maximum dimensions of the device to the space available in the application.

 

  1. Test the selected product. Independently test and evaluate suitability and performance in the actual application.

 

Zonkas is the professional manufacturer of capacitor, inductor and transformer. Our main products including: various inductors, transformers, Safety Capacitor (Y1, Y2, X1, X2), Ceramic Capacitor, Film Capacitor and Electrolytic Capacitor. If you need more information about PTC resettable fuses or other capacitors, welcome to visit our website or contact with Zonkas directly!

 

 

Article Source: http://www.engineerlive.com/content/21341

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An electrical capacitor is a type of electrical reservoir that stores and releases electric energy. This type of item is used in the production of many devices, such as amplifiers, computers, televisions, radios etc. You can find some of the components mentioned above in almost all electronic circuits.

 

Since they basically host an electric charge, their voltage and capacities can apply to a large variety of needs. Producers use a lot of materials to create capacitors according to the area of usage.

 

Ceramic

 

Usually, electrical capacitors are designed as sandwiches of insulators placed between 2 layers of metal. An insulator is made out of a material called “dielectric” and it determines the general behavior of the capacitor. The devices that have a ceramic dielectric have smaller values (they start at a couple of picofarads- the farad is the unit of capacitance) and can reach even a thousand picofarads. An interesting thing about them is that they have great capacitance stability when it comes to a large temperature range.

 

Tantalum

 

The items that need to fit a large capacitance value in a tiny space can easily use tantalum capacitors. They are polarized (one lead takes positive charges while the other one negative ones). Extra attention should be given in order not to wire the capacitor backwards or the polarity might destroy it. You can recognize a bad capacitor by the silvery fluid released.

 

Aluminum Electrolytic

 

This is used for the stronger applications and the power-supply filters. It is not very expensive and has a tolerance of 20%. This means that they normal value of the part can vary higher or lower than the value displayed on the label.

 

One of the most significant issues in this case is represented by the liquid inside, which can dry and prevent the capacitor from working. The liquid can also leak and destroy the rest of the components. Furthermore, the electrolytic capacitors can explode if they are connected in a wrong manner, they can leak current, do not have a long lifespan and do not resist to high temperatures.

 

Polyester Film

 

This type of electrical capacitors has a greater capacitance value and it is very reliable. Its capacitance increases when the temperature does, making it incompatible with sensitive circuits. These capacitors can be found in various locations and do not cost very much.

 

Silver Mica

 

This is also a great dielectric. Mica is a natural mineral which creates thin sheets. It has a very accurate part values, it is very reliable, but its price is a bit higher compared to other capacitors. It is used especially for the frequency-sensitive parts of the radio and audio circuits. In this case, the capacitance value starts at a couple of picofarads and goes up to very low microfarads.

 

Are you looking for a reliable provider of electrical capacitors? Yuhchang Electric Co., Ltd. would be the first choice of capacitor supplier for you.  With rich experienced and advanced technology, we insist to produce high quality electrical capacitor series to clients. Welcome to visit Yuhchang’s website to learn more information about our products. Feel free to contact with us for further details!

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/7959118

Today’s medical application solutions are getting smaller, not in the sense of importance, but in size. Emergency medical equipment is decreasing in size in order to become portable and usable in the field before a patient ever reaches a hospital. On the spot treatment methods can help stabilize trauma patients and save lives.

 

For the armed services, field medicine is of critical importance. Soldiers do not have the benefit of full hospitals when they are in a battle zone; typically, they only have access to what medical personnel can carry on their backs or in a truck. Miniaturization has enabled medics to utilize more advanced equipment outside of hospitals to stabilize wounded soldiers and save lives. One particular component that has offered new breakthrough is compact, high torque DC gear motors and DC micro motors.

 

Let’s take a look at how these devices are implemented and used in real situations.

 

Fluid Infusion Needs

 

The first line of treatment for trauma patients is controlled fluid infusion, but conventional units are not suitable for field use. Standard infusion pumps deliver about 100mL of liquid per hour, but a wounded soldier experiencing trauma needs liquids much faster at a rate such as 100ml per minute.

 

Technology Based Medical Application Solutions

 

The solution for field equipment to provide rapid fluid infusion for trauma patients and wounded soldiers has to be a compact, low weight, battery operated unit that runs silently and no electronic signature. The basis of the infusion pump is a DC micro motor. This battery operated, miniature high torque motor weighs in under a half of a pound and runs on six triple-A batteries for over 10 hours. These specifications are achieved through efficient operation.

 

The crux of the design is a unique cartridge set and disposable tube system. When one tube is being compressed, it stored potential energy. Once the tube is empty, that potential energy is recovered as the expansion of the empty tube boosts the action of rocking the yoke to the other side so that it can begin to compress the other tube. In this way, the function of using one infusion cartridge powers the second, doubling the overall flow with only a minimal increase in required power.

 

The Motor Solution

 

Of course, to deliver the infusion liquids in such a compact unit, a high torque motor is needed. To find the appropriate battery powered device, a DC micro motor is used to fit the bill. In only a 13mm DC micro motor with a 76:1 gearhead reduction ratio, the infusion pump is able to deliver a sustained 100mL per min or a quick 250mL single burst for critical situations.

 

The finished Power Infuser product is a base pump unit topped with a disposable cartridge. The unit weighs in less than 10 ounces and measures 5 inches by 4 inches by 2.3 inches. The infuser is able to meet a wide range of criteria and deliver high volume infusions in a compact battery operated unit. Thanks to miniaturized DC micro motors, soldiers on the field have one more tool to ensure that they get home safely.

 

Hsiang Neng DC Micro Motor Manufacturing Corporation was established in 1985, which is a professional manufacturer of precise DC motors and geared motors. Our main products include geared motors, planetary geared motors, mini motors, large-sized motors as well as motors for treadmills, actuators and etc. If you need more information about DC micro motor and other motors, welcome to visit Hsiang Neng’s website and feel free to contact with us.

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3522228

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Biometric Access Control is the new age technology that has revolutionized attendance and access systems like never before. The age of swapping cards and proxy punching is long gone and now all organizations are adopting this new technology which uses various human traits such as fingerprint scanning, retina scanning and facial recognitions in place of swapping cards and passwords. The benefit of these human traits is that they are unique to every individual and cannot be duplicated or stolen.

 

Every year organizations lose a huge sum of money due to time thefts and unnecessary manual work of calculating wages and working days of each and every employee. This is not only tiresome and time consuming but also costs a lot of money. No organization can afford such costs in this highly competitive world. So many organizations are now switching to biometric scanning processes which enable them to save money and also time.

 

Biometric technology has various modes of connectivity and access depending on the needs and want of any organization. Manufacturers of these scanners keep the needs of the customers in mind and provide them with customized technologies most compatible with their employees and their requirements. The different modes include fingerprint scanning, which include the scanning of fingerprints of every employee while entering or leaving the office. Retina scanning is the process by which the iris, retina and other features of the human eye are scanned and then admission is allowed to any individual inside any high secure facility. Retina scanners are really very accurate and personalized. Many high risk government and private facilities use a combination of fingerprint scanning and retina scanning in order to provide maximum security and to ensure that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter. Facial recognition includes scanning the vital points of any individuals’ face that differentiate it from any other individual.

 

Thus latest biometric technology is the technology of the next age and many organizations have already started using it. Preliminary results have been very promising and many are inclined to follow the trend in near future. Its products are very reliable. These biometric systems are now available easily and you can access them as per your convenience and requirements. So don’t be late and order a biometric scanner as per your requirements as soon as possible. It’s high time to upgrade yourself if you don’t want to lag behind in this competitive world.

 

Quality biometric access control system manufacturer – Pongee, providing fingerprint time attendance, face recognition access controller and USB fingerprint scanner in this series. Our biometric access controllers with time recorders are high security, easy to start and easy to use. Welcome to browse the specification about our biometric access control systems and feel free to contact with Pongee for more details!

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/9011041

 

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What is Super Bright LED Light?

On March 1, 2017, in LED, by Lambert

If you are planning to buy a quality LED flashlight, you should make sure that it would be able to provide good and clear lighting. There are many flashlight manufacturers in the market, who are providing super bright LED lights, which can be used in dark areas. These LED are capable of lighting up to 300 meters. This is a marvelous discovery of the new and advanced technology. Even though LED was in the market from many years, most of the people did not know the real benefits of it. As people started using it for different purposes, LED manufacturers started producing more advanced and powerful LED lights.

 

However, installing LED to cars has become a new trend today. Most of the people who look for an option to modify their cars and other vehicles use LED bulbs. Even though most of the people use the ordinary LED bulbs, few opt for super bright LED light, which will provide them more power beams than the ordinary ones. These LED come out with four output levels; therefore, you have an option to set it to low, medium, high or with turbo.

 

If you research on the web or visit your nearby store, you will be able to find different types of super bright LED light series, which are obtainable in different colors. Apart from the car modification, LED is also used for many industrial purposes. These bulbs can be also fixed for bikes with the help of a LED kit. Finding the right accessories for your vehicle is very important as it might enhance your driving experience.

 

DAINA is the professional LED manufacturer in Taiwan. We provide a variety of high quality LED lights such as super bright LED lights, oval LED, rectangular LED, multi-color LED and so on products for customers. Learn more information about LED lights, welcome to visit our website and feel free to contact DAINA.

 

 

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3710498

What are Solenoid Valves?

A solenoid valve is an electro-mechanical valve that is used to control the flow of liquid or gas. The solenoid starts by converting an electrical signal into a mechanical movement. The signal is then sent to a coil and the movement then occurs inside of the valve. Solenoid valves are usually be described as pilot operated or direct operated/acting.

 

Pilot Operated Solenoid Valves

2 way pilot operated solenoid valves have two chambers separated by a diaphragm. The upper chamber is connected to upstream through a pilot hole in either the cover or diaphragm. The media exerts a pressure that acts on the upper side of the diaphragm and keeps the valve closed. When the coil is charged the core lifts off the orifice seat allowing the operating chamber to de-pressurize. The thrust of the upstream pressure under the diaphragm continues, lifting the diaphragm and opening the valve.

 

Pilot operated solenoid valves only operate with a suitable upstream pressure differential and do not operate at zero pressure. Also a minimum pressure differential across the valve is required to keep them open or closed. Pilot operated solenoid valves can provide high flow rates at high pressures with lower power consumption.

 

Direct Acting Solenoid Valves

Direct acting solenoid valves do not use a diaphragm, their seal is part of the moving core. Two way NC direct acting solenoid valves have a spring that holds the core against the seal. When the coil is charged the spring is overcome and the seal is lifted from the orifice seat thus opening the valve and allowing the media to pass through the valve.

 

Two way NO direct acting solenoid valves have a fixed core which usually in the bottom section of the armature tube. The armature is located in the upper part of the valve. A stem passes through the fixed core and is coupled to the seal. This is held off the seal by means of a spring and makes a seal when the coil is energized, thus closing the valve.

 

Three way direct acting solenoid valves work in almost the same way as a two way direct acting solenoid valve. The fixed core has an exhaust orifice running through it. The plunger has an upper seal and lower seal allowing flow to or from either the body seat or exhaust.

 

Direct acting solenoid valves are used when there is no line pressure applied. Typical applications would include a cleaning line when a pump supplies bursts of water through the line. A direct operated solenoid valve would remain closed, even when no pressure is being applied (i.e. in between the busts of water). This is in contrast to a pilot operated valve, which requires some pressure for the valve to stay closed.

 

Excellent Solenoid Valve Manufacturer in Taiwan

SHAKO is one of leading and the largest professional pneumatic solenoid valve manufacturers in Taiwan. With rich experiences and in-deep knowledge, we are able to provide pneumatic solenoid valve products with excellent high quality & rapid service for various industries. If you need more information about solenoid valve series, welcome to visit the website of SHAKO.

 

 

Article Source: http://www.bmengineering.co.uk/news/solenoid-valves/How-do-pilot-operated-and-direct-operated-solenoid-valves-work