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SMPS: Basics & Working of Switched Mode Power Supply

On April 26, 2017, in Electrode Products, Power Supply, by Lambert

Switching mode power supply (SMPS) is used in a range of applications as an efficient and effective source of power. This is in major part to their efficiency. For anybody still working on a desktop, look for the fan output in the central processing units (CPU). That’s where the SMPS is. SMPS offers advantages in terms of size, weight, cost, efficiency and overall performance. These have become an accepted part of electronic gadgets. Basically it is a device in which energy conversion and regulation is provided by power semiconductors that are continuously switching “on” and “off” with high frequency.

 

The different kinds

  • C. to D.C. Converter
  • Forward Converter:
  • Flyback Converter:
  • Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter
  • DC-DC converter

 

The primary power received from AC main is rectified and filtered as high voltage DC. It is then switched at a huge rate of speed and fed to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The step-down transformer is only a fraction of the size of a comparable 50 Hz unit thus relieving the size and weight problems. We have the filtered and rectified output at the secondary side of the transformer. It is now sent to the output of the power supply. A sample of this output is sent back to the switch to control the output voltage.

 

Forward converter

 

In a forward converter the choke carries the current when the transistor is conducting as well as when it’s not. The diode carries the current during the OFF period of the transistor. Therefore, energy flows into the load during both the periods. The choke stores energy during the ON period and also passes some energy into the output load.

 

Flyback converter

 

In a flyback converter, the magnetic field of the inductor stores energy during the ON period of the switch. The energy is emptied into the output voltage circuit when the switch is in the open state. The duty cycle determines the output voltage.

 

Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

 

This is the most simple and basic converter based on the flyback principle. During the conduction time of the switching transistor, the current through the transformer primary starts ramping up linearly with the slope equal to Vin/Lp. The voltage induced in the secondary winding and the feedback winding make the fast recovery rectifier reverse biased and hold the conducting transistor ON. When the primary current reaches a peak value Ip, where the core begins to saturate, the current tends to rise very sharply. This sharp rise in current cannot be supported by the fixed base drive provided by the feedback winding. As a result, the switching begins to come out of saturation.

 

Basic working concept of a SMPS

 

A switching regulator does the regulation in the SMPS. A series switching element turns the current supply to a smoothing capacitor on and off. The voltage on the capacitor controls the time the series element is turned. The continuous switching of the capacitor maintains the voltage at the required level.

 

Design basics

 

AC power first passes through fuses and a line filter. Then it is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier. The rectified voltage is next applied to the power factor correction (PFC) pre-regulator followed by the downstream DC-DC converter(s). Most computers and small appliances use International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) style input connector. As for output connectors and pinouts, except for some industries, such as PC and compact PCI, in general they are not standardized and are left up to the manufacturer.

 

Why SMPS

 

Like every electronic gadget, switching mode power supplies also involve some active and some passive components. And like every of those gadgets, it has its own advantages and disadvantages.

 

Let’s start with why you should go for a SMPS

 

  • The switching action means the series regulator element is either on or off. Very high efficiency levels are achieved as very little energy us dissipated as heat.
  • As a result of the high efficiency and low levels of heat dissipation, the switch mode power supplies can be compact.
  • Switch mode power supply technology also provide high efficiency voltage conversions in voltage step up or “Boost” applications and step down or “Buck” applications.

 

Then there’s the bad set

 

  • The transient spikes due to the switching action can migrate into other areas of the circuits if not properly filtered. These can cause electromagnetic or RF interference affecting other nearby items of electronic equipment, particularly if they receive radio signals.
  • To ensure that a SMPS performs as per the required specification can be a bit difficult. The ripple and interference levels are particularly tricky.
  • The costs of a switch mode power supply is calculates before designing or using one. Additional filtering further adds to the cost.

 

What would the future hold?

 

In the future, we could have more efficient SMPS aimed at a better converter doing the most effective conversion process. The focus areas for designers in making SMPS efficient would be:

 

  • Higher output power
  • Achieving higher current output and low voltage
  • Increasing power density
  • Using switching device like Schottky diode

 

Hon-Kwang Electric specialized in manufacturing switch mode power supply and related products. We provide series of switching power supplies to meet different demands of you. If you are interested in learning more details about switching mode power supply, please feel free to contact with Hon-Kwang.

 

Article Source: http://electronicsforu.com/resources/learn-electronics/smps-basics-switched-mode-power-supply

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Mobile Cart

On September 3, 2015, in Other, Power Supply, by Lambert

One of the most essential areas within every business is the receiving area, and this is also one of the most easily unnoticed when it comes to receiving the right gear in place to make the workflow during the business as flat and well-organized as possible. The goods received area is frequently seen as an temporary department, where having transport tools is needless, however when you start to think the amount and worth of goods that pass through your mail room every day, you will start to think that having mobile carts in place for employees to move goods with will make sure that all goods into the business are treated correctly, and carefully.

Mobile carts offer a stretchy solution to any light duty movement necessities that your business has. Simple Rack stock a number of dissimilar carts that are designed to be well suitable to carrying average and light weight tools and other materials around competently.

The normal mobile cart that is frequently offered looks rather like a hostess trolley, in terms of its vital shape, although with a highest capacity of 500lb in use, it will carry more than just food! There is a alternative of models with either 2 or 3 shelves, and both are perfect for fulfilling a wide selection of jobs within a normal workplace.

The 2 level mobile carts can simply take reasonably large boxes of things, and are perfectly suited to use in a factory environment where your employees must carry different components and materials plus completed products from one workplace to another. These stretchy carts are also perfect for the daily mail run through be construction, when parcels need to be spread amongst staff, and they are too important or numerous to be accepted by hand.

With the three layer mobile carts, there is a lot less space for individual large items to be simply moved around, however, using these carts your employees will find it really simple to express large numbers of smaller items around the factory floor for example individual components. Providing a means to move both large and small things from one place to another simply and constantly will allow production employees to better focus on the actual job of production, while leaving the compilation of their components to other employees.

Whether you require the better elasticity of a two shelf system, or the higher weight capacity of a 3 shelf mobile cart, you will come across that these products are made to the total highest standard, and fit in a number of added value features together with hard wearing casters and height adaptable shelves to pay for even greater elasticity in use.

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Overview of an Uninterruptible Power Supply

On September 1, 2015, in Power Supply, by Lambert

When a power source fails, that failure can result in the loss of data, applications, capacity and other impacts. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a piece of equipment that serves as a buffer between a power source and the equipment (computers, servers, machinery, etc.) that require power to operate. If a power source fails, the UPS can supply enough electricity to help avoid an operational impact. They’re typically used as an emergency resource. Though the upfront investment can be large, their availability for mission critical applications during power outages can be invaluable. Below, we’ll describe how uninterruptible power supplies work, a few ways in which they’re used and how they can be a solution for a broad range of power needs.

How An Uninterruptible Power Supply Works

There are a few types of uninterruptible power supplies (including offline, line interactive and online). Each type works differently. That being said, they work from the same fundamental principles. At its most basic, a UPS converts power from AC to DC. The power is stored within a battery while the battery is charged with a component called a rectifier. If a power source suffers an outage or the connection is severed, the battery determines how long the UPS can sustain sufficient power to maintain operational integrity. A UPS also includes a component called the inverter. The power is converted to AC before it is delivered to the equipment that needs it. Ideally, when a power source becomes unavailable, the UPS takes over immediately to provide a seamless and constant source of electrical input.

Practical Applications

The most common application for a UPS is in the event of a power failure. When a power outage occurs, it can cause a company’s entire operation to stop. This can carry a significant cost in lost production. Another use for a UPS is during voltage sags and spikes. Occasionally, a power source can experience fluctuations in voltage. While a sag in the current can dilute power from important equipment, a spike can actually damage equipment. A UPS can help regulate the flow of the electrical current.

Ultimately, the continuous flow of power provided by a UPS can be beneficial in thousands of circumstances. These can include helping computers maintain functionality, avoiding severe data loss, keeping automatic doors operating properly and countless other uses.

Power Solutions For Varying Needs

Whether you’re running a solitary computer at home or mission critical applications in a large data center, a UPS can help normalize voltage flow and provide a constant source of electricity should a power source fail. They’re available in a wide range of sizes and power capacities with prices that reflect their respective features. When the power fails, your exposure to loss of data and other impacts catapults. Invest in a robust UPS solution to mitigate that risk.

Power Systems & Controls is the industry standard for Uninterruptible Power Supply and Frequency Converters

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Eric_Gehler

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Manufacturer of Switching Power Supply, Adaptors – Hon-Kwang

On August 16, 2013, in Power Supply, by Lambert

Hon-Kwang was founded in 1981. Head office is in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hon-Kwang is a maker of power supplies & specialized in the design and manufacture for the domestic and foreign market.

Hon-Kwang specialized in manufacturing switching mode power supply and series AC/AC adaptors, AC/DC adaptors with different output rating, I/P voltage. Also, LED power supplies with 5W, 7W, 10W up to 250W are provided. Hon-Kwang switching mode power supplies feature universal input, high efficiency and short circuit protection.

 

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Hon-Kwang Electric Co., Ltd.

Address: 246, Feng-Jen Road, Feng-Shan Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan

TEL: +886 (7) 743-0206

FAX: +886 (7) 742-2305

E-mail: overseas@honkwang.com

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